There are 25 goat breeds in Pakistan. Beetal, Kamori, Nachi, Dera Din Panah, Angora and Teddy are the most prevalent domestic breeds and there are two wild breeds such as Ibex and Markhor. Goats are prone to parasitism which results in the form of reduced reproduction, more susceptibility to secondary infections and increased mortality.
The hemiparasites including babesia, theileria, trypanosoma and anaplasma etc. cause high morbidity and mortality due to increased prevalence. Theileriosis is a significant tick-borne, blood protozoan disease of small ruminants. The only two etiological agents of theileriosis in goats are theileria ovis and theileria lestoquardi in Pakistan. The clinical signs that are observed in goats suffering from theileriosis are increased body temperature, swollen lymph nodes, pale mucous membrane, anorexia, loss of weight, constipation and diarrhoea etc.
When a tick bites an animal, sporozoites invade the host body, it is transformed into schizonts in lymphocytes. The infected lymphocytes are transformed into lymphoblasts which continue to proliferate synchronously along with the schizonts. Eventually the infected daughter lymphoblasts are spread throughout the lymphatic system and continue to proliferate. The haematological analysis also showed a significant rise in leukocyte count in infected goats which may be due to the proliferation of lymphoblsts as a defensive response to invading parasites. In the later stages of theileriosis, the schizonts transformed to merozoites are released by the lymphoblasts and they invade erythrocytes. At this stage, they are called piroplasms. At this stage, there is excessive destruction of red blood cells that leads to anaemia.
Blood and urine samples were obtained from 20 theileria positive and 20 normal goats from different farms of Lahore. The infected goats showed clinical signs associated with theileriosis. Haematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis by dipstick method were performed to observe the alterations in renal function and urine characteristics and results were compared with the reference values for goats. On performing CBC, serum biochemistry and urinalysis by dipstick method, we observed significant deviations from the reference values. A significant increase in Total Leukocyte Count was seen while there was a significant decline in Total Erythrocyte Count, Hb level and Packed Cell Volume was observed when CBC was performed. When renal function tests i.e. creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen were performed, a significant rise in their values was observed. Urinalysis by dipstick method also showed some deviations from the reference values.
Sadaf Gul, Dr. Qamar-un-Nisa