By Prof Dr Sarfraz Hussain
Many people in Pakistan have never thought about knowing their blood group until there is a need for transfusion of blood at the time of emergency. Professor Dr Sarfraz Hussain says that the life which we are spending without knowing our blood group is miserable. In the modern world knowing your blood group is such a strong biomarker that it is considered in all fields of life. In Japan, people do not hesitate to ask blood group to judge the compatibility of their partner or at the time of interview for a job even people ask about blood group before dating or meeting someone for very first time. So, it is a norm to ask: “What is your blood group?” (Roland, 2010) or in an advertisement for a job, it is written that people with blood group “O” are encouraged to apply instead of saying “Women are encouraged to apply”. The hospitals in Pakistan are full of patients suffering from numerous diseases, spending their earnings of life on medical treatment within a few days. Peter D’Adamo and Dr Lam has worked a lot on diet and have published many books as “Eat right 4 your Type”. Millions of these books are sold but with many controversial opposing thoughts. The food guide pyramids are designed to guide consumers about various food groups and how much to eat from each group to remain healthy. The first Food Pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974. Graphic representation of the food groups was made at the beginning of 1988. Food Guide Pyramid was finally released in 1992 by USDA, further updating was made in 2005 and replaced in 2011.
International scientific community criticised food guide pyramid released by USDA, saying that “The current food pyramids are not working properly” and the recommendations are Nutritionally and Biochemically. Not sound also not applicable universally, hence needs to be revised (Anonymous, 2008). So-called Balanced diet does not remain Balanced once entered into the body due to conflicting “Lectins”. Scientists said that one man’s diet is other man’s poison (James and Richards, 1994). This is due to the reason, presence of variable lectins in all foods. These lectins are a type of protein present in different foods which react with blood cells and binds to sugars causing agglutination in the blood (Peter & Catherine, 2000).
Harvard scientist Dr Walter Willett, criticising USDA pyramid said that it is not up-to-date with current nutritional research stating following faults in food pyramid:
- All fats are bad.
- All complex carbohydrates are good.
- Protein is protein. Hepatitis.
- Dairy products are essential.
No guidance on weight, exercise, alcohol, vitamins, & minerals provided (Walter and Stampfer, 2006; Tom, 2012).
No considerations are made for change in climatic conditions which cause variation and availability of seasonal fruits and vegetables to combat emerging diseases (Faiz, 2002).
Blood group data is not very common and also not easily available due to many social and ethnic reasons.
Blood group “B” is dominant in the Himalayas, in the region of today’s India and Pakistan (Ali, et al. 2005; Peter and Catherine, 2000). In Pakistan, these blood groups are present in the proportions as “B” 36%, “O” 33%, “A” 21%, and “AB” 9%. In Pakistan, the most common blood group is “B” which have liver as a target organ and is very prone to Hepatitis. Pakistan is number one in hepatitis due to this blood group. Prof Dr Sarfraz Hussain working at Institute of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Pakistan has taken up the challenge and explored through studies on blood group related diet to remain healthy and prevent diseases. He has made a breakthrough in nutrition science by developing a world’s first ultimate diet pyramid based on blood group diet targeting four types of tissues (Sarfraz Hussain, et al. 2014; Sarfraz Hussain, et al. 2016; Hussain et al., 2017) His diet pyramid has been appreciated by relevant health workers in the modern world but most of the others are still unable to understand the significance of this diet pyramid in nutritional health. This pyramid needs to be filed as a patent.
He explains that there are four major types of blood groups, tissues and their diet is entirely different from each other. Hippocrates (450 BCE to 380BCE) said that “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.”
Some people believe that diet cannot control diseases, but Dr Sarfraz Hussain is of the opinion that taking the wrong diet causes serious illness and diet according to blood groups is the only way to remain healthy. When people are healthy, they rely 100% on diet and when they fall ill, they still remain 50% on diet, 25% on medicine and 25% on environment & psychology.
God has mentioned about some fruits in Holy Quran as fig (dry & cold) & Olives (hot & wet) (Surah Watteen-Aya #1-4), Dates (dry & hot) & Pomegranate (cold & wet) (Surah Al-Bakra-Aya #266). These fruits have highly different nutritional (on the basis of food analysis) and temperamental differences and cannot be suitably given to each four different blood group type individuals. It is very much clear that what so ever we take targets mainly our tissues and are most suitable to our blood group temperaments (O-bloody, A-Phlegmatic, B-Yellow bile and AB-Black bile).
Fig. Colours show temperaments of blood groups and changing season showing dates tells that you have to use just opposite diet to the season mentioned in the diagram for cure diseases.
Medical Science has reported that there are four types of tissues signifying relationship to four blood group type individuals Viz. A-Nervous tissues, B-Epithelial tissues, AB-Connective tissues and O-Muscular tissues. Similarly, these well-developed tissues variably in each blood group need a specific diet to keep the individuals healthy. The present balanced diet & nutrition is based on calories recommendation and not according to the tissue requirements. Balanced diet & nutrition is actually based on the presence of various simpler sugars, acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and Fatty acids required variably by different tissues. Four types of tissues mentioned as above have different requirements for proper functioning of these tissues.
Glucose is the simplest sugar required by epithelial tissues and all such foods which have higher glucose sugars are highly suitable for blood group “B” people. While high fructose present in Honey, Dates and grapes is highly suitable for blood group “O” people. Mouth is the gateway of nutrition having taste buds on the tongue. There are four taste buds present on our tongue.
First one is sweet, second to that is saltish, the third one is tart and fourth present at the last part of our tongue signifying bitter and astringent taste. These foods are liked by our taste buds, which later on become balanced diet and nutrition for that specific person. The current balanced diet & nutrition is based on the composition of foods but a food having high nutritional value if not selected by a specific taste bud of an individual will not provide any nutrition to that person. These four blood group individuals also have well developed separate taste buds and specific pronounced functional tissues formed through genetic makeup and blood group. Individuals having blood group “A” has nervous tissues as target tissues, for “B” people it is epithelial and for “AB” and “O” types it connective and muscular tissues respectively. These people like similar foods which are required by their relevant well-developed tissues. Specific taste buds also are responsible for development and curing different diseases. Not all diseases develop in all individuals. Specific blood group individuals may have specific diseases. These facts are supported by scientific studies.
Prevalence of diseases such as coeliac disease, autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, cardiovascular disease and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, suggests that some dietary factor specific to plant foods could initiate these diseases.
Of the food lectins, grain/cereal lectins, dairy lectins and legume lectins are the most common ones associated with aggravation of inflammatory and digestive diseases in the body and improvement of these diseases and/or symptoms when avoided.
Lectins serve as a vehicle to allow foreign proteins to invade our natural gut defense and cause damage, commonly in joints, brain, skin and various body glands.
Continued exposure of the gut by these unwelcomed food lectins create a persistent stimulation of the body’s defense mechanism in a dysfunctional manner, which manifests as an autoimmune disease. If the lectins in diet are causative in initiating all these diseases, it should be possible to identify the responsible constituents and modify or remove them so as to make the diet healthier (Rabia Hamid and Akbar Masood, 2009).
While some Greek medicine practitioners also classified diseases on the basis of the temperament of individuals but Dr Sarfraz Hussain carefully corelated these diseases with blood groups and investigated suitable diets to cure these diseases on the basis of tissues. He affirmed that temperament and blood group studies are very similar and these diseases can be cured with diet of opposite temperament.
He says that present balanced diet and nutrition is not working properly and he also intend to modify the definition of current balanced diet and nutrition as “It is an in-built capacity of mind of a person having a particular blood group type (A, B, AB and O) which is based on specific taste buds to select a particular food which ultimately becomes source of balanced diet and nutrition for her/him. However, this ability is independent of age, sex and sanity. A food having high nutrition (based on food analyses) if not selected by taste buds of that individual will not provide any nutrition to that individual commonly known as likes and dislikes. Foods consumed on these bases when entered in to the GI tract does not provide the same nutrition as affected by many internal factors. As enzymes, lectins and micro-organisms present in GI tract. There are well defined differences in types of microbiota in GI tract of four blood group individuals which need specific pH and acidity, sugars, amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. God has gifted our food according to the changing season but just opposite to the seasons (see as under diagram) to save us from changing season and cure diseases.
Novel findings indicated that the ABO blood group is one of the genetically determined host factors modulating the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, thus enabling new applications in the field of personalized nutrition and medicine (Makivuokko et al., 2012).
Research work carried out at Harvard School of Public Health shows that there is a strong correlation between blood group and heart diseases. Findings were based on two large US analytical studies in which 62,073 women from nurses and 27,428 subjects from health profession were studied between the age of 30 and 75 years and followed for 20 years. The work was published in an American Heart Association Journal. It was claimed that blood group “AB” individuals were more vulnerable to heart attack and people having blood group “O” were 20% more resistant to heart disease based on lifestyle, and diet (Meian et al., 2012). Dr Sarfraz Hussain also strongly agree with the findings of this study due to its large number of subjects and the duration of the study. But one of his most strong evidence is that the “AB” people have well developed connective tissues commonly known as bones and these bones are the coldest part and bad conductor of heat and result in low blood circulation in the body and due to having both antigens (antigen-A and antigen-B) also need extra calcium for the health of bones.
Atherosclerosis, thrombosis prevails in blood group “AB”. Additional doze of calcium is recommended to “AB” people (Babar, 2005). These results were also confirmed by the studies conducted by Saima Akram and Sarfraz Hussain (2015). These people face clotting of blood in legs and suffer heart failure. Parents having blood group “A” and “B” should avoid marriages so that formation of blood group “AB” in children can be avoided.
It is essential to know the exact diet of “AB” to avoid complications and blockage of artries. Having stents can also be avoided by strictly following the diet of “AB” designed by Dr Sarfaz Hussain.
In Pakistan blood group distribution is shown in map, which is highest “B” in the grey color (25-30%).
Pakistan is at high risk of Hepatitis due to the high prevalence of blood group “B” due to the reason of Liver being a target organ in this blood group. These people need the highest doze of Iron. He has also categorized many diseases in to various categories according to temperaments and blood groups. His findings can be much helpful in saving money, avoiding wrong diagnosis and proper curing of diseases. Dr Sarfraz also intend to serve the nation to combat diseases and reduce malnutrition in Pakistan and in the world by diagnosing appropriate diet according to the blood groups and their tissues. He has treated many complicated cases through recommending diet and have published peer reviewed research papers (Sarfraz Hussain et al., 2017; . He is of the opinion that BMI should be re-evaluated on the basis of prevalence of blood groups in a country and new real cut off values for BMI of four blood groups in the world should be found (Ammara Ainee and Sarfraz Hussain, 2014). Iron fortification of flour is the real need for people having blood group “B” (Sehrish Mukhtar, 2015) and Iodine fortification in salt is really needed for the thyroid gland and may use turmeric as natural source but avoid cucumber, cabbage and cauliflower. These vegetables will bind iodine and in the same manner all foods are selective for all four blood groups. Iodine is needed mostly by blood group “O” (Abdul Haris et al., 2014), otherwise, overload in rest of blood groups is dangerous. People having blood group “O” deficient in Iodine may suffer from stunted growth. But other blood groups may not show any significant stunted growth. Group “O” need Iodine for proper functioning of thyroid gland. Many food technologists are working as nutritionists and dietitians in the modern world. But in Pakistan, these people having good knowledge about food are not being registered as nutritionists. Chief nutritionist of Pakistan working in planning commission in Islamabad is also qualified in food technology and many food technologists are working in the modern world as dietitians and conducting research on nutrition projects. Government should take action to reduce malnutrition and control diseases in the country through blood group type nutrition as adjuvant therapy.
- Ali N, et al. 2005. Frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups in major ethnic groups and casts of Pakistan, Pakistan J Med. Sci. 21:26-29.
- Abdul Haris, Sarfraz Hussain, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Umar Nasir. 2014. Surveillance of blood group “O” Human with Reference to Iodine. Science International (Lahore). 26(1):311-316.
- Ammara Ainee, Sarfraz Hussain, Tusneem Kausar, Tahir Mehmood Qureshi, Muhammad Nadeem and Farhat Rashid. 2014. Studies on Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) of School Going Children Having Different Blood Groups (A, B, AB, and O) of Sargodha District. Pakistan J. of Nutrition. ISSN No.1680-5194.13(3):164-167.
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- Sarfraz Hussain, et al. 2014. Ultimate Diet Pyramid based on blood groups. Presented in International Conference & Expo, Conference Session, Clinical & Therapeutic Nutrition, Recent Developments in Human Nutrition, 19-20 March, 2014, at PC Hotel Lahore, Organized by Nutritional Association of Pakistan and University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Abstract published in Proceedings of the conference, 2014; 78-79.
- Saima Akram and Sarfraz Hussain. 2015. Comparative Studies on Deficiency of Calcium in Blood Group AB of Female Hospitalized Students with Other Blood Group Types. Research & Reviews: Journal of Food and Dairy Technology. Open excess Journal. ISSN: 2321-6204. Pp1-5.
- Sarfraz Hussain, Qaisar Raza, itrat Fatima, Syeda Mahvish Zahra and Farhat Rashid. 2017. “Obesity Is an Eating Disorder Causing Many Diseases”. Nutrition and Food Toxicology.1(4):154-159.
- Sehrish Mukhtar. 2015. Nutritional status assessment of hepatitis C patients with special reference to blood groups. MS Unpublished thesis. Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
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- Sarfraz Hussain, Farhat Rashid, Syeda Mahvish Zahra, Muhammad Umar Nasir and Ayesha Raique. 2016. Blood Group Diet Research is the Key to get Precise Results to Improve Human Health. Research & Reviews: Journal of Food and Dairy Technology. Online. e-ISSN:2321-6204, p-ISSN:2347-2359.